Zero


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The zero is used to determine the positional value of a certain number within the mathematics world and to indicate the absence of quantity. The zero is needed in the positional number system that is used by people today. When you think about the position of any number in the positional numeral system it determines the value of that position. For example, in 567 the 5 stands for five hundred, and the 6 stands for six tens (sixty) and the 7 stands for seven ones or six units. In order to write the number five hundred six dollars you would have to include a zero to show that there are no tens in the number.

In school you learn that when you add a number to zero you get the original number. When you subtract you also get the original number. Multiplying a number by zero will automatically give you a zero. By dividing a number by zero it becomes indefinable. Yes it is just common sense to know these things.

It is believed that the Maya Indians invented the concept of Zero before 300 A.D. Several years later the Hindus developed the concept of the zero independently a few hundred years later after the Maya Indians did.

This ends the A to Z challenge it has been  a fun experience, and I am looking forward to the next challenge of writing. Adding more articles to my blog for the viewer’s to enjoy.

XYZ~An Undeclared War


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During this challenge I have not had that much of a problem finding something to write about for the letters of the alphabet. However, when you get to the last part of the challenge it becomes challenging. Needless to say there is not much in the way of words starting with “X”. There were a couple of things in “The Encyclopedia Britannica” that peaked my interest.

Onto the  actual article!

The XYZ was an undeclared war that happened in 1797 and into 1798. The controversial exchange of diplomatic proposals was between France, and the United States.  The result of this confrontation between France, and the United States was due to strained relations between the nations. Furthermore, they were demanding outrageous amounts of money from France during the XYZ affair. In the midst of the XYZ affair that let the United States, and France to fight at sea even though war was never declared during this time.

The XYZ affair was developing during the war with France and Great Britain. During this time the British captured many of the French ships during the war, which led the French to rely on the American ships to keep trades going between the France, and the United States. In 1796, the “British Jay Treaty” went into effect and this made the French enraged at the United States.  Moreover, the “British Jay Treaty” was a failure because Americans could no longer trade with France. Therefore, the French would seize the American Ships and their cargoes.

During the Adams administration he had appointed two political leaders to join Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to settle the dispute between France, and the United States. he was involved in negotiations that ended in the XYZ Affair (Pinckney, 2008). The two political leaders were John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry. Furthermore, the three agents explained to the Americans that before they could be seen by Talleyrand that they would have to pay him a bribe of $250,000 dollars, an apology for pro-British policies, and acquire a loan of $12 million dollars from France.  He was forced to resign briefly for involvement in bribery scandals, including the XYZ Affair (Talleyrand, 2008).  This war was later called the “Quasi War” and the three diplomats were known as XYZ during John Adams administration. The Convention of 1800 ended a period of undeclared naval warfare between the U.S. and France (XYZ Affair, 2008).

It is interesting what you learn about history.

References:

XYZ Affair. (2008). . Britannica Ready Reference.  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. (2008). . Britannica Ready Reference.  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Gerry, Elbridge. (2008). . Britannica Ready Reference.  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Talleyrand (-Périgord), Charles-Maurice de. (2008). . Britannica Ready Reference.  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica

Learning New Things About Your Family History


You know learning about your history gives you the feeling that you can trace your roots. In researching my history I have found many things that make-up the way that I am today. I love writing because I get to voice my opinions about a variety of things that happens in my life, in the world or what ever I would like to voice my opinion about. A couple of years ago I decided to start a family tree to keep track of my family, and retrace the roots of where we came from. What I found was interesting enough and I will continue to add information to my family tree. So below I have outlined some of the things that I have found in my family history:

Ten Generations of family so far

James Hopkinson 1600-1658 My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

Thomas Hopkinson 1630-1679 My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

Mathew Hopkinson 1650-1710 My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

Thomas Hopkinson 1678-? My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

Thomas Hopkinson, II  1700-1791 My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

Francis Hopkinson 1737-1791 My Great, Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather his parents were Thomas Hopkinson 1700-1791 and Mary Johnson 1718-1804

Nancy Ann Borden 1747-1827 was Francis Hopkinson’s wife they had five children together. Her parents were Joseph Borden, II 1719-1791 and Elizabeth Rogers 1725-1743

Joseph Hopkinson 1770-1842 My Great, Great, Great, Great Grandfather

John Pennington Hopkinson 1801-1836 My Great, Great, Great Grandfather

John Taylor Hopkinson 1833-1899 My Great Great Grandfather

Joseph Hopkinson Sr. 1871-1959 My great Grandfather

Joseph Hopkinson Jr. 1932-2000 My Grandfather

Daniel J. Hopkinson 1954 My Father

Ten generations of history to learn about and all the accomplishments that come with this wonderful history.  This is only one side of my history still working on the other side of my history and that is sometimes untraceable.

So this is going to be a work in progress.

The Timucuans, Florida’s First People


This is interesting! I enjoy reading about history and learning more about the places around us….

tahtonka - A Journey Through Global Culture

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Picture credit: A Public Domain image of  Jacques le Moyne ??

Florida’s First People

Today’s Blog is about one of the very earliest residents of Florida,  the Timucuan Indians.

It is pronounced,   tee-MOO-qua.

Our home here in Central Florida is on land where these Ancient people once lived.

The St. John’s River, which flows from South to North, not far from us, was of great historical importance to the Timucuans and several other local tribes here in Central Florida.

The Timucuans, were a  rather tall, and slim race of Native people, who  lived  in this area, in the 1500’s and were estimated to number between 50,000 to 200,000 at the time.

But, by 1700,  thanks to the diseases brought by the invading Spanish, their numbers had dwindled down to around 1,000.

By 1800, they were considered to be likely completely eliminated or extinct.

Interbreeding with the “ invaders”  was the final blow to these once thriving Native people…

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